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On May 27, 2014, Balboa, a 22-year-old male scarlet macaw underwent surgery to remove cataracts from both his eyes. This procedure is not performed very often, and there is very little literature available. The lack of accessible information can make it quite difficult to ascertain whether or not to consider this procedure in parrots. There are definite risks, as with any surgery, and the procedure itself is very expensive.
 
Reconciling the benefits of the surgery with the expense and risk of the parrot not surviving the procedure is a very difficult endeavour for the parrot caregiver. While researching the surgery in an attempt to make an informed decision, we discovered only two cases in North America where this procedure had been performed on parrots. One surgery on a Moluccan cockatoo had a successful outcome, and one on an African grey was not successful.
 
The purpose of this page is to provide information to anyone considering a procedure to remove cataracts from a companion parrot’s eyes. The information we used to weigh the risks, costs, and benefits in order to make an informed decision is the most current information available. For everyone who has a companion parrot, or any bird that is losing sight due to cataracts, I want to share some of the emotional and technical obstacles we encountered between first considering this procedure and actually committing to the surgery. My hope is that this information helps anyone who is interested and helps them to make the right decision for themselves and their parrot.
 
Balboa is a male, wild-caught scarlet macaw who was surrendered to us in September, 2013. Balboa was taken from his home in the wild in 1992. After he came through the Canadian border, half of the flight feathers on his left wing were cauterized. This was to ensure that his ability to fly would be curtailed permanently. The problem with this procedure is that because they focused only on the left wing, his balance and his ability to flap his wings have been compromised. In fact, Balboa has hardly ever attempted to flap his wings in the last 16 years while in the care of the previous caregiver or since he has been with us. This has resulted in considerable atrophy of his chest muscles.
 
When we received Balboa into our care, he was almost fully blind in his right eye from a cataract that began to develop 6-7 years ago. His left eye had developed a cataract about 2 years ago, and was progressively getting worse. With Balboa's already limited mobility due to being unbalanced and not using his wings, the additional handicap of being almost completely blind in the right eye and going blind in the left had a negative impact on his quality of life, and getting through each day was becoming more of a struggle.
 
His routine would consist of coming out of his box at the bottom of his cage in the morning to defecate and to eat his breakfast on top of the cage. I would place him back in the cage for the day while I went to work. He would spend 90% of his time in the box at the bottom of the cage until I came home to let him out. Most of the time he would not come out right away when I opened his cage door after I got home. He would eventually come out when it was close to the time he knew I would pick him up to interact with him and give him scratches before dinner.
 
On most occasions when I would put him back on his cage to prep our flock’s dinners, he would go back to the bottom of his cage and into his box and wait until his dinner was served. When I placed his dinner on top of his cage, he would come out to eat. After he was done eating, he would stay on top of his cage for about 10-15 minutes before going back down into his box, and stay there until about 8 p.m. in the evening. I would pick him up to spend more one-on-one time with him until 8:45-9 p.m. Once back on his cage, Balboa would go in and out of his box periodically from 9-10 p.m. (just before bedtime).
 
This was pretty much standard for Balboa and how he would react and interact with his surroundings and the flock. Because of his uneasiness and lack of confidence in moving around, amplified by his increasing inability to see, I believe Balboa spent the majority of his time in his box (always facing in, to the darkest area at the back of the box) so as not to be reminded of what he was not able to experience. With Balboa’s right eye estimated at being 95% blind and his left eye already 55-65% blind and progressively getting worse, I felt that it was urgent to find out if cataract surgery was an option and if Balboa would be a good candidate for such a procedure.
 
I took Balboa into Dr. Pam Gordey for a check-up and to be mini-microchipped as part of our surrender protocol. I asked her about surgery to remove the cataracts from Balboa’s eyes and if such a procedure was possible within Alberta. She recommended Dr. Dylan Buss here in Edmonton. Dr. Buss is Guardian Veterinary Centre's board-certified ophthalmologist. We were able to get a referral to see Dr. Buss in late November 2013. The consultation went very well. He explained in great detail what Balboa’s current state was, his possible prognosis with the surgery, and his prognosis without the surgery.
 
Balboa’s diagnosis after the consultation was: 
Cataracts in both eyes, hyper-mature in the right eye and immature in the left eye. The cataract in the right eye was hyper-mature, meaning that the eye was starting to undergo lens reabsorption due to the length of time that the cataract had been present. There was also some corneal scarring in the right eye. The left eye had an immature cataract that affected the majority of the lens. Unfortunately without paralytics we could not visualize the entire lens but it appeared that most of it was affected by cataract. The degree of cataract in both eyes affected the ability to visualize the retina. Cataract surgery could be considered with the cataract present as an opportunity to improve vision.
As we suspected, without surgery Balboa would eventually become totally blind. What little remaining sight he had would be slowly taken away from him due do to no fault of his own. Balboa was only 22 years old and had not even lived half of his full life potential. Dr. Buss explained the positive and potential negative aspects of the surgery. When we left the consultation, we had a complete understanding of the risks and benefits involved
 
As I was leaving Dr. Buss’s office, I made up my mind that we needed to do this for Balboa. I also decided that I wanted Dr. Buss to perform the surgery. Dr. Buss had explained how he performed this procedure on other birds such as owls and a lorikeet. There were only three issues holding us back from proceeding.
 
First, the former caregiver had to agree to allow us to go forward with this procedure. This mattered because when she released Balboa into our care just two months earlier, she had not agreed that we would put Balboa through a procedure that could potentially endanger his life. Even though I thought it was best for Balboa to have this procedure done, I did not think I had the right to proceed without the consent of the former caregiver.
 
Second, Dr. Buss's area of practice is ophthalmology, not anesthesia on birds. Birds are commonly thought of as being very high-risk candidates for anesthesia, and complications can arise if the anesthesia is not being administered and monitored by an experienced anesthetist. Dr. Buss said he would get back to us about finding a qualified anesthesiologist to administer the anesthesia.
 
Third, the cost of the procedure of just the cataract removal, without the anesthesia, would be $3,300-$3,600. Dr. Buss stated that if we needed to bring in a qualified anesthesiologist who had experience working with parrots from outside Edmonton, the additional cost would be $1,300-$1,500. So as a foundation, we were looking at a total cost of $4,600-$5,100 for the procedure.
 
From the time we had the consultation with Dr. Buss in November 2013 and decided to proceed with the surgery, to the time that the procedure was successfully competed on May 27, 2014, it took 6 months of deliberation and organization.
 
The first hurdle I had to overcome was to convince the former caregiver of Balboa that we should do this. Although she had surrendered Balboa to us and we had the legal right to make that final decision on our own, she did not surrender Balboa to us only so we could put his life in danger and maybe lose him forever if something went wrong while under anesthesia. I felt that the only way I would be comfortable was for her to have the final say on whether we proceeded with the surgery. It was up to me to provide her with all the known and potential unforeseen risks, and to keep her apprised of all aspects of the procedure before having her agree to proceed with the surgery.
 
Once that was established, I was fine with whatever her final decision was, as I did not want to risk Balboa’s life or have his quality of life be any worse than what he was already coping with. The risks were high. Having the former caregiver agree to proceed with the surgery after just releasing him into our care, spending $5,000 or more on the surgery, and then not being able to take Balboa home would be quite devastating to say the least. As a result of these considerations, our standards were quite high when we assessed the merits of the procedure and fully evaluated the risks involved. Everyone involved in the final decision had to be comfortable with our assessment process and all of the information gathered relating to the procedure.
 
The second hurdle we needed to overcome was establishing how we were going to afford such an expensive procedure. On one hand, $5,000 was insignificant when compared to the priceless gift of regaining the ability to see. I know that if I lost my eyesight, I would pay any amount of money to get it back, even if it was only a small improvement. I’d do everything I could to be able to see again. On the other, more practical, hand, our foundation did not have any available funds to put toward this procedure. Finding the $5,000 was an obstacle that was impossible to overcome on our own.
 
We wanted to start to fundraise, but because we did not know for sure if we were going to go through with the surgery (based on risk evaluation), we felt it would be very difficult to ask for funds. We also felt that without a definite decision, and with the risk of Balboa not surviving the surgery, not very many people would want to donate. So I asked one of our board members if they would consider funding the surgery if we were to proceed. Our board member agreed to cover the costs if we did indeed go through with Balboa’s surgery, with the understanding that after the surgery, if it was indeed successful and Balboa came back home, then we would worry about fundraising. We felt that we would have a story to tell that eliminated a lot of the worry, fear, concern, and simply not knowing if the money spent was indeed worth it. As it turned out, it was well worth it!
 
The final hurdle to overcome was to ensure that if we were to proceed with the surgery, we would need to understand and mitigate as many of the risks as possible. In particular, the most delicate part of the procedure would be the administration of the anesthesia. When we first met with Dr. Buss, there were only one or two potential veterinarians in Edmonton who might be able to administer the anesthesia. Having a local vet involved would have been a lot easier to arrange logistically and also would have been less expensive.
 
After a few weeks of inquiries, it became apparent to Dr. Buss that to perform the surgery in the safest way possible, he needed someone who was experienced in administering the anesthesia with a ventilator, which would paralyze Balboa and provide respiration. At first, this sounded a little extreme to us, and caused the former caregiver great concern. We also reached out to Foster Parrots in New England, where they had performed a successful cataract surgery with a Moluccan cockatoo the previous year. We began an e-mail correspondence with one of the veterinarians regarding the method they had used to administer the anesthesia. This vet stated that "the bird will not have to be 'paralyzed and ventilated' during surgery.”
 
This worked well for them. However, Dr. Buss was insistent about how he wanted the procedure to be handled. He wanted to ensure the most controlled and safe environment possible. Although in most cases cataract surgery is a very delicate and standard procedure, Dr. Buss could not estimate how long he would need to be in each eye once he started until he was actually doing the procedure. Dr. Buss wanted to be sure that once he began, he would be prepared for any unknown events that might require a little more time than the bare minimum allowed under regularly administered anesthesia. Putting a parrot under anesthesia is not a common practice. It is actually quite rare, and birds in general are a much more complicated animal to administer anesthesia to. Dr. Buss did not want any issues with the administration of the anesthesia and wanted full control of Balboa’s environment while in surgery.
 
Dr. Buss informed us that Dr. Read would be available to administer the anesthesia on May 27, 2014. Dr. Matt Read DVM, MVSc, DACVAA is an Associate Professor, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary http://vet.ucalgary.ca/profiles/matt-read. Once we knew who would be administering the anesthesia for Balboa, we agreed to proceed with the surgery immediately. Everyone involved in the decision-making process was very comfortable with the fact that both Dr. Read and Dr. Buss would be the ones to perform this potential life-changing procedure for Balboa.
 
There was still one final step to ensure Balboa’s safety during this procedure. We needed to get bloodwork done to ensure that he would be able to handle the anesthesia. The blood results would tell us if he would be susceptible to anesthesia poisoning and/or any potential adverse effects with the administration of the anesthesia. The bloodwork showed nothing remarkable and that there was nothing to indicate he would be in any danger from having the anesthesia in his system.
 
Having bloodwork done pre-surgery is a prerequisite for making sure that any animal is in a healthy enough state to withstand the administration of anesthesia.
 
On Monday morning, May 26, 2014, I received a call from Dr. Buss’s assistant at The Guardian Vet Centre. Dr. Buss wanted to see Balboa again before the next day’s surgery to see if anything had changed since November of 2013. I took Balboa in to see Dr. Buss the same day, and he said there were no discernible changes in either eye. But Dr. Buss also wanted to emphasize that once the surgery started, he would focus on the left eye first to ensure that if time only permitted him to work on one eye, it would be the left eye that needed to be addressed first.
 
Every surgery is different, every eye is different, and every situation is different. Although Dr. Buss did not foresee any complications that would prevent removing the cataracts from both eyes, he was aware that once the surgery began, there were no guarantees as to how smoothly the procedure would go. In the event that the surgery was more difficult than anticipated or complications arose, Dr. Buss wanted to be sure he was able to focus on the left eye first, as this was the one with the less mature cataract and with the greater chance of restoring sight. As far as Dr. Buss was concerned, the surgery would only last as long as Dr. Read was comfortable with Balboa’s physical state while under anesthesia. Dr. Buss made it quite clear that once he had started and completed the left eye, he would ask Dr. Read how Balboa was doing and if he was stable enough to proceed with starting the extraction of the cataract from Balboa’s right eye.
 
Since we first met Dr. Buss, we have been very impressed by his diligent, careful, and safety-conscious approach to the surgery. From the start, Dr. Buss was more concerned about having a successful outcome to the surgery than the surgery itself. One of his first questions about Balboa was regarding how he handled the lack of sight and how it was affecting his quality of life. This concern for the animal is very important to caregivers of any companion animal, especially when they are considering any type of potentially risky procedure with a veterinarian.
 
On Monday, May 26th, the evening before the surgery, I received a call from Dr. Read in Calgary at around 7:00 pm. He asked if I had any questions or concerns about the surgery. Dr. Read provided a very detailed explanation regarding how he goes about administering anesthesia and how every step is monitored, and what indicators he would use to follow Balboa’s condition from beginning to end of the surgery. I was very impressed and pleased with the care he takes and all of the safety precautions he uses. I was also very impressed that he took the time to call me in advance and that he wanted to give me the opportunity to ask him any questions I might have before the surgery.
 
Dr. Read also explained:
"Birds have very different respiratory systems from mammals, and that the way that anesthesia is managed and monitored is somewhat different. He suspects that this is one of the main reasons that bird anesthesia is considered to be higher risk than for dogs and cats – that people unfamiliar with the differences may not be prepared to manage and monitor anesthesia appropriately. He explained that they would be monitoring Balboa’s breathing and that they would be able to support it as needed to make sure he was taking in the right amount of anesthesia, and that his oxygen and ventilation were kept stable. He explained that although muscle paralysis is commonly used for dogs and cats undergoing cataract surgery, it is usually not necessary in birds undergoing this procedure. Birds’ eyes are different, and as a result, they do not usually need to have paralyzing agents given to their whole body, making the procedure different from when it is performed in other animals. He was confident that they would be able to maintain Balboa safely under anesthesia, and that he would recover from surgery smoothly and comfortably."
 
On Tuesday, May 27, 2014, I took Balboa into The Guardian Vet Centre at 7:15 a.m. I met one of Dr. Buss’s assistants, Alesha, when dropping him off, and explained to her how to handle this big blind scarlet macaw. She had prior experience with large birds and parrots, and had no fear of Balboa. Once I had shown her how best to pick him up and handle him, and explained that it was best to allow him to find his own way, I was very confident and reassured about leaving him in her care for the next 6-8 hours.
 
Both Dr. Buss and Dr. Read called me immediately after the surgery at 12:20 p.m. to confirm that everything went very well and Balboa was recovering quite nicely. Dr. Buss reviewed the surgery with me over the phone and stated that everything had gone extremely well. He then gave the phone to Dr. Read, who told me that he was holding Balboa on his lap, and Balboa was just starting to wake up. He informed me that everything about the procedure had gone as well as he had hoped for. Everyone involved was thrilled that the procedure had gone so well.
 
Here are both Dr. Read’s and Dr. Buss’s explanations about the events that transpired though the course of the procedure from 10:00 a.m. when Dr. Read began prepping Balboa for surgery to 1:00 p.m. when Balboa woke up.
 
Dr. Read's report:
"In terms of Balboa, he was very stable through anesthesia. We gave him an injection of butorphanol for pain management, and then waited about 15 minutes before getting started. We induced anesthesia by placing his head into a mask and letting him breathe the anesthetic in oxygen. Since birds have such efficient respiratory systems, they go down very quickly without any real struggle or stress. Dogs and cats can take several minutes, but birds are induced within 30-60 seconds in most cases. After that we placed an IV catheter for fluids, placed our monitors, and moved him to the OR. We prepped him for surgery and got going about 15 minutes later. His parameters were acceptable throughout and he was down for a total of 100 minutes (10:35 to 12:15). I breathed for him during the procedure, since as we talked about, birds generally do not breathe well under anesthesia. Otherwise, his temperature was stable between 38.4 and 39.4C, his heart rate was between 200-300 beats per minute (higher during surgery which is expected as a result of the stimulation), and he did great. Once I turned him off, I held him upright in a towel until he could hold up his head. After about ten minutes, we placed him on a towel on the floor and he was standing on his own. He was happy to hang out for another 20 minutes or so (getting lots of attention from the staff), and then we placed him in his kennel."
Dr. Buss's report:
“Balboa underwent cataract surgery on both eyes. Although the cataracts have been removed, Balboa’s vision may not be perfect until the inflammation associated with surgery starts to clear in the first 24 hours. As the inflammation resolves over the coming 2-3 weeks, vision should continually improve. The cataract in the left eye was extracted without complication and we are very pleased with this eye. Please recall that although the surgery went well that we cannot comment on vision at this point because we were unable to complete retinal test prior to surgery. The right eye had a markedly hyper mature lens which was mildly subluxated (due to shrinking) and there was a posterior synechia (adhesion between the iris and the lens) from 9-1:00. We attempted to break down the adhesion but were not able to completely free the iris. The surface of the lens capsule was markedly scarred and pigmented from the inflammation associated with the cataract. We removed the anterior lens capsule to provide a clear path for light to travel. Our concern over the right eye is that it has suffered a significant degree of inflammation and this may or may not have affected the retina and can increase a risk for developing uncontrolled uveitis or glaucoma post operatively.”
Balboa was ready to come home at 3:30 p.m. on the same day as the surgery. He is a very outgoing parrot, and he had endeared himself to the staff at The Guardian Vet Centre with his happy talking and singing.
 
We were given explicit instructions for Balboa's post-operative care. We needed to move his cage into a separate part of the house (the living room) for the first week so that he could recover under low-light conditions, and so that he would be kept away from the bird dust from our other birds. Dust would irritate his eyes during recovery. We also needed to administer anti-inflammatory drops once daily until otherwise instructed, and antibiotic drops 3 times daily until otherwise instructed. In addition, we had to give him Baytril orally once a day until finished, which was about 3 or 4 days.
 
Dr. Buss made it clear in our consultation in November that post-op care was critical to having a successful outcome for the surgery. If we were not able and willing to follow through on ALL the post-op treatments that Dr. Buss ordered for Balboa, then there was no point in doing the surgery at all. The chance that Balboa’s eyesight would improve much, if at all, would be extremely slim if the proper healing after surgery didn’t take place.
 
When Balboa arrived home at 4:30 p.m., he was very thirsty and hungry. He had not been allowed to eat anything at all for at least 12 hours before surgery. We were also told to make sure that when we give him his fresh food that evening, we only gave him half of what we would normally give him. This was because he was still coming out of anesthesia, and he could feel nauseated and vomit. Although I only gave him half of what he normally gets for his dinner, he did vomit a couple of times throughout the evening. However he was very active, alert, jovial, and happy to be home and pampered.
 
The following observations were noted over the first 4 weeks of Balboa’s recovery and were sent to Dr. Buss, Dr. Read, and Dr. Gordey:
Balboa's appetite, demeanor, and habits changed dramatically as soon as we got home after the surgery. Instead of him just sitting on his door or going down into his box, he walked around the top of his cage and crawled up to the top of the play-top were there are two bowls; one for fruit pellets and one for water. He has not been up there at all since October last year. Now that's his favourite place and he's been eating those fruity pellets every single day since the surgery. I was wondering if the anesthesia hadanything to do with his change in appetite?
Before surgery, Balboa would spend the majority of his day in his box and at the bottom of the cage. I suspected before the surgery, Balboa spent most of his time (19-20 hours minimum) a day every day in that box as a way to deal with the fact that he was unable to see and interact with the events around him. Struggling to see what little he could was not worth his time and effort, and he would just come out of his box to defecate, eat, and spend one-on-one time with me. If I didn't pick him up within a few minutes at around the usual time for interaction, he would give up and crawl down to the bottom of his cage and back into the box, where he would stay until I coaxed him out. After the surgery, Balboa had no interest in going into his box at all for the first 2 weeks. It got to the point that a couple of days after the surgery I would place him back into the box to show him that the cage was indeed his original cage in case he didn't recognize it as his own. Balboa only started going into his box on his own on the 14th day after surgery (June 10). I'm not sure if that's from the fluorescent lights bothering him or if he is just getting back into his old routine? As of June 17, Balboa spends very little time in his box, maybe 2-6 hours per day and most of that at night after the lights are out.
When Balboa is within striking distance of some of the other parrots, he now takes the initiative to strike out before they get too close. This is not at all what Balboa was able to do before the surgery. In the past Balboa was always reacting to other parrots that would strike at him as a reaction to being touched without knowing they were there at all. I would sometimes have Balboa on my arm when I would let out Maxwell (his nemesis, a red bellied conure) out of his cage and place Balboa's beak within an inch of Maxwell's beak just to see Balboa's reaction and to put a little intimidation into Maxwell hoping that he would leave Balboa alone.
Balboa never noticed Maxwell at all and would only react when touched. Maxwell has always known something was wrong with Balboa, and he would always (and still does) go to his cage and try to pick a fight with him. Red bellied conures go for weakness like no other parrot species I know of.
Throughout the course of the last two weeks, Balboa has kept his right eye slightly more closed than his left eye. This was a normal practice for him most, but not all of the time, before the surgery. Since the surgery, Balboa's left eye has been fully open under low light and almost fully open (70-100% at times) under full light. His right eye is slightly more closed (about 60-90% open) than his left eye under low light and about half (40-60%) open under full light. I believe his eye muscles are getting a workout having to deal with more light getting in and trying to focus.
Although Balboa is definitely seeing better almost every day and has improved over the last 2 weeks, I noticed his depth perception is still a struggle. This became very evident since June 11-12 when placing his bowl of fresh food on top of his cage. When he is on his play-top and I place the food on his cage (in front of and below him) he tries to reach for it going back and forth without coming down from his play-top. I pick him up from his play-top and place him on the open cage door next to where the bowl of fresh food is, and sometimes he still doesn't understand exactly where it is. UPDATE: Since that time I noticed Balboa's sense of depth both inside and outside the house has improved a great deal. He does not seem to struggle as much, if at all, in reacting to this and he seem to know where things are more quickly in the last 7 days as of today June 24th.
I believe Balboa's eyes are healing faster than his eyes and brain are capable of adjusting to the extra light that he is now experiencing. As his eyes heal, they are allowing more and more light in, which is continuing to tire and put strain on him. There is a noticeable difference in how much more open both his eyes are when he is in a lower light-level situation. I believe it will still be another 3-6 weeks (maybe longer) for him to be comfortable and accustomed to the extra amount of light that he is now experiencing.
Before the surgery, we estimated that Balboa's eyesight in the right eye was only 5-8%, and in the left eye 20-25%. After the surgery as of June 24, we estimated that Balboa's eyesight in the right eye is now about 12-20% and in the left eye 50-60%. Although these estimations are only due to observing Balboa's actions and reactions to his surroundings, they are conservative, as we are unable to measure definitively what he is able and not able to see.
Both eyes are exhibiting atrophied muscles due to long-lasting cataracts. This became very apparent once Balboa was moved from the low light in the living room to the common area with the other parrots. Right eye closed and watery-reaction to brighter light? Muscles may be weak because of long-standing cataracts.
When I took Balboa to see Dr. Buss on June 25 for his second evaluation after the surgery, Dr. Buss was able to answer most of our questions about how, why, and what Balboa was able to experience and see now after 4 weeks of recovery from surgery.
 
Because cataract removal on birds in general and parrots especially is not a common procedure, no one makes replaceable lenses for parrots. They do for dogs and cats, but not for parrots. So in order to do the procedure, Dr. Buss needed to remove the outer lens to extract the cataract. Because of this, Balboa will forever be without lenses in both eyes, and the light that enters his eyes will not be filtered.
 
He is experiencing a wider spectrum of light than he would with lenses, and his near vision will be a little blurry, as he will be unable to focus properly on near objects in front of him as well as he did before he developed the cataracts. Because he has more light entering his eyes, this is causing him to squint more for now until he gets used to having to deal with more light. Now the cataracts are not blocking the light and there are no lenses in his eyes to filter that light. It may take one or two months for his brain to adjust to the way the eyes are working and for his sight to optimize. That said, Balboa’s vision has greatly improved, and he is much happier, more confident, and more mobile. He can definitely see a lot more of what the world has to offer than before the surgery.
 
Considering that Balboa had such a successful procedure and recovery, it was without a doubt the best thing we could have done for him. It has given him the quality of life he deserves. We were only able to accomplish this because of Dr. Dylan Buss and Dr. Matt Read performing the life-changing procedure for him. Because of their professionalism, high standards of care, and attention to detail, we as a foundation were able to grapple with the risks involved and make a well-informed decision about going through with a procedure that will forever change the way Balboa sees and experiences life.
 
I can’t express enough how everyone appreciated the professionalism that Dr. Buss and Dr. Read exhibited throughout this entire process, and the care that was demonstrated.
 
I wanted to share a couple of photos of what I do with our companions throughout the summer months, from late April to early October. At every opportunity (weather permitting) I set up the back yard and take out our flock. This is what Balboa was experiencing, but without seeing much. Now he can see it all.
 
 
If you are looking for a Ophthalmologist for you companion parrot try; Locate an Ophthalmologist

 

 


                                                              by Wesley J Savoy Parrots Forever Sanctuary & Rescue Foundation, July 11, 2014
 
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